By C. Scarpignato, A. Lanas
Reprint of: Digestion 2006, Vol. seventy three, Suppl. 1 countless numbers of bacterial species make up human intestine flowers. The gut has no less than four hundred diversified species of micro organism totaling over 1012 organisms. of those, ninety nine% are anaerobic micro organism. The gastrointestinal tract is then uncovered to enormous quantities of bacterial species and international antigens and has embedded a distinct and complicated community of immunological and non-immunological mechanisms to guard the host from very likely destructive pathogens. fit everyone is more often than not tolerant to their very own microbiota, yet such tolerance is impaired in sufferers with either natural and useful gastrointestinal illnesses. The development of the information on microbial-gut interactions in future health and illness has allowed a extra pathophysiologically-oriented method of numerous hard medical stipulations. There are presently how one can manage enteric flowers. Antibiotics can selectively lessen tissue invasion and put off competitive bacterial species or globally reduce luminal and mucosal bacterial concentrations, looking on their spectrum of job. however, management of valuable bacterial species (probiotics), poorly absorbed nutritional oligosaccharides (prebiotics), or mixed probiotics and prebiotics (synbiotics) can repair a predominance of precious commensal plant life. those healing methods aren't, after all, jointly unique. Rifaximin, a poorly absorbed antibiotic distinctive on the gastrointestinal tract, has been lengthy utilized in Italy for the remedy of infectious diarrhea in either adults and kids. up to now few years the appreciation of the pathogenic position of intestine micro organism in different natural and useful gastrointestinal illnesses has more and more broadened its medical use, which now covers hepatic encephalopathy, small gut bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory bowel disorder and colonic diverticular illness. different strength scientific symptoms are being explored and glance promising. during this factor, prime scientists (both Spanish and Italian) speak about - in a sequence of cutting-edge stories - the present prestige of the current wisdom on Microbial vegetation in Digestive illnesses and investigate the position of rifaximin in numerous gut-related natural and useful gastrointestinal issues. because it comprises a lot info tough to assemble from different scattered assets, this quantity could be of curiosity to infectiologists, gastroenterologists and digestive surgeons alike.
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Additional info for Bacterial Flora in Digestive Disease: Focus on Rifaximin (Digestion)
Chemotherapy 2005;51(suppl 1):96–102. 105 Physicians’ Desk Reference: Use-in-Pregnancy Ratings, ed 58. Montvale, Medical Economics Co, 2004. 106 Czeizel AE, Rockenbauer M, Olsen J, Sorensen HT: A population-based case-control study of the safety of oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001;5:564–568. 107 Ito S, Lee A: Drug excretion into breast milk – overview. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2003; 55: 617–627. 108 Czeizel AE, Rockenbauer M, Olsen J, Sorensen HT: A teratological study of aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment during pregnancy.
Tegaserod, another 5HT4 receptor agonist, was superior to placebo for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation in a large, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial . Other drugs used in patients with constipation not responding to standard medications are: prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol , and microtubule formation inhibitor, colchicines . It is important to remember that misoprostol cannot be used during pregnancy and should be used cautiously in reproductive age women who could become pregnant because of effects on uterine contractility and risk of abortion.
Meta-analysis of the efﬁcacy of alosetron in the treatment of IBS; pooled data are shown excluding and including the Jones study that used mebeverine as the control treatment (from Cremonini et al. ). tract and only 5% in the central nervous system. Two different 5-HT pathways exist in the enteric nervous system, having different responses after stimulation. The intrinsic pathway (mainly mediated through 5-HT4 receptors) is involved in the peristaltic reﬂexes and water and ions secretion. The extrinsic pathway (mainly mediated by 5HT3 receptors) is associated to visceral sensations.