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By Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel

An creation to common sense and clinical process is a school point primer on common sense. This ebook was once commonly utilized by students specifically these learning economics as an advent to logical inspiration in training for highbrow discourse. Ludwig von Mises used to be identified to assert that every one scholars of economics should still learn this e-book as a primary step of their education as economists.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method

Sample text

Even untutored people feel dimly that there is a dif­ ference in form between Dr. Smith is a reassuring person and All physicians are reassuring persons although traditional logic regards both as universal. Modem logic corroborates this feeling by show­ ing clearly that these propositions do in fact illustrate different logical forms. Nevertheless, for many purposes no harm results if, with traditional logic, we regard both as having the same structure. Quality A second classification of categorical propositions is concerned with their quality.

These aspects, while perhaps not spatially and temporally separable from other characters in the situation, are distinguishable in meaning. That is why sense experience never yields knowledge without a reflective analysis of what it is we are experiencing. For knowledge is of propositions. And propositions can be known only by discriminating within some situation relations between abstract features found therein. 6. While a proposition is defined as that which is true or false, it does not mean that we must know which of these alternatives is the case.

But the proposition of which a sentence is the verbal expression is distinct from the visual m arks or sound waves of the expression. Sentences, therefore, have a physi­ cal existence. They may or may not conform to standards of usage or taste. But they are not true or false. Truth or falsity can b e predicated only of the propositions they signify. 2. It should be noted, however, that while the proposition m ust not be confused with the symbols which state it, no proposition can be expressed or conveyed without symbols.

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