Download Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan PDF

By Gregory K. McMillan

This best-selling ebook offers a transparent, concise, and finished view of ways to pick, set up, and preserve electrodes, keep an eye on valves, and keep watch over thoughts for pH purposes serious for product and water caliber within the method undefined. The e-book covers each element of approach layout together with the blending and reagent piping specifications which are vital for a winning application.
The crucial strategies are summarized as key insights and the easiest practices are offered as principles of thumb during the publication. The rising strength of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make current pH measurements quicker and extra trustworthy. the most recent advancements in complicated batch keep watch over, adaptive regulate, linear reagent call for keep an eye on, and version predictive regulate are offered to lessen reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.

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Example text

Since the influent flow is usually known before the effluent flow, Equa tion 2-1h is substitu ted for Fe in Equa tion 2Ig to yield Equation 2-li for calculating the reagent flow. The desired flow ratio for the abscissa of the titration curve is the ratio of the diluted reagent to the diluted influent mass flow, which pe r Eq ua tion 2-1 i is equa l to the ratio of the reagent to influent weight fractions in the effl uent multiplied by the inverse of the ratio of the reagent to influent weight fractions in the incoming streams.

Generally this is simply flow feedforwa rd where the reagent flow is ratioed to the influent flow and corrected by a feedback pH controller (Ref. 3]. It relies on a secondary reagent flow controller that receives a remote set point th at is the flow ratio multiplied by the actua l influent flow corrected by the pH controller output. If a flowmeter is not ava ilable for eithe r the influent or reagent flow, an inferential flow measurement can be calculated from the installed valve cha racteristic and pressure d rop.

In o ther words as the salt concentration goes up and the water conce ntra tion goes d own, the pH w ill increase even though the concentration of acids or bases has not changed . Figu re 2-2a shows how the pH increases with the concen tration o f sod iu m chloride. : i " , , , ... '" ". Figure 2-2a. 5 • 1°·5 (2-2e) 1 + 3 ·1°·5 where: activity of hyd rogen (hydronium) ions (gm-moles per liter) c lI - concentration of hydrogen ions (gm-moles per liter) YH - activity coefficient for hyd rogen ion (1 for dilute solutions) molal concentration of salt ion i (gm-moles p~r kg of solvent) mj pl-l e negative base 10 power of hydrogen ion s I - ionic strength of stream at 25°C Z; = charge or valence of ion i aB - Eq ua tion 2-2a shows the definition of pH in terms of hyd rogen ion activity instead of concentration.

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