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Additional resources for Advanced Concrete Technology 1: Constituent Materials (Advanced Concrete Technology Set)
3 Hydration of C3A and C4AF The reactions of laboratory-prepared C3A and C4AF with water, alone or in the presence of calcium sulfate and calcium hydroxide have been extensively studied (Odler, 1998). However, the findings should be interpreted with caution as the composition of the aluminate phases in industrial clinker differs considerably from that in synthetic preparations and hydration in cements is strongly influenced by the much larger quantity of silicates reacting and also by the presence of alkalis.
25% in order to avoid a marked reduction in the early reactivity of cement. Minor constituents also have to be controlled on account of their impact on cement properties and also concrete durability. Related to this, the levels of alkalis, SO3, chloride and MgO are also limited by national cement standards or codes of practice. 6. 4 Cement grinding The clinker is normally conveyed to a covered store where, provided stocks are adequate, it will cool from the cooler discharge temperature of 50–80°C to a temperature approaching ambient.
However, if too high a level of dehydrated gypsum is present, then crystals of gypsum crystallize from solution and cause a plaster or false set. This is known as false set because if mixing continues, or is resumed, the initial level of workability is restored. Cements This is because the gypsum needles which have developed a structure in the paste are broken and dispersed by re-mixing. The cement manufacturer thus needs to optimize the level of dehydrated gypsum in the cement and match this to the reactivity of the C3A present.