Download A Companion to Gender History by Teresa A. Meade PDF

By Teresa A. Meade

A spouse to Gender historical past surveys the heritage of girls worldwide, reports their interplay with males in gendered societies, and appears on the function of gender in shaping human habit over hundreds of thousands of years.

  • An vast survey of the historical past of girls around the globe, their interplay with males, and the position of gender in shaping human habit over millions of years.
  • Discusses relations background, the heritage of the physique and sexuality, and cultural historical past along women’s historical past and gender background.
  • Considers the significance of sophistication, area, ethnicity, race and faith to the formation of gendered societies.
  • Contains either thematic essays and chronological-geographic essays.
  • Gives due weight to pre-history and the pre-modern period in addition to to the trendy period.
  • Written by means of students from around the English-speaking international and students for whom English isn't their first language.

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Thus, sado-masochistic perversions that characterized women as whip-wielding dominatrix and men as groveling slaves were a direct inversion of the gender hierarchy. Inversion in either sex was by definition sterile, as was a fetishistic obsession with shoes, nails, bonnets, locks of hair, oysters, or any other object that deflected “normal” vaginal intromission and ejaculation. The entire family of fetishes violated the gender order by focusing on objects, or on the “wrong” sex, the love that a man and woman owed spouses and children.

Slaves in Sparta, whether men or women, found themselves at the very bottom of the labor hierarchy. Although in some areas (such as Athens), slave men and women could become independent and earn income, they normally labored at the most arduous tasks in agriculture or mining. Interestingly, among slaves, gender difference in labor was less pronounced than among “free” laborers. Evidence from ancient Rome suggests a similar picture. In this highly stratified and politically complex society, the transition from a republic to an empire did not signal major changes in gender relations, particularly at work.

Deficiencies in what was believed to be the innate aim of sexual libido – to have intercourse with the opposite sex – produced attractions to inappropriate objects or bizarre actions that fell well short of full heterosexual intercourse. This list was long indeed, including all varieties of fetishism, exhibitionism, bestiality, and particularly inversion, which was the preferred term for an unnatural attraction to someone of the same sex. Inversion, which eventually came to be known as homosexuality, was the perversion that aroused the greatest concern among specialists and sexuality 19 the general public.

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